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Lactose is broken down into
these two sugars and then galactose is further broken down into glucose (or glycogen).  Once carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, they are in the blood (extracellular–outside of the cells); however, cells need that glucose in order
to carry out certain processes so it has to be brought inside (intracellular). Through the process of glycolysis, glucose is broken down to produce ATP. ATP is the currency system of the cell (like dollar bills). It fuels the work that cells need to do. While glucose is a simple sugar, it is still a relatively large molecule, therefore it needs certain transporters in order to allow it to enter a cell. These are known as GLUTs (glucose transporters).  Contrary to popular belief, not all cells require insulin in order to transport glucose inside of a cell. Some organs and tissues are insulin-independent, meaning insulin is not required, whereas others are insulin-dependent, meaning they require insulin.  GLUT 4 transporters are located on skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the heart
and do require insulin. In order for glucose to be transported into these cells, insulin must bind to insulin receptors and signal for this process to occur.