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Experts stated there was lacking evidence that indicates sustained weight loss for long periods of time. The keto diet was given a below-average ranking for this category. Counter: There are several short-term (less than two years) studies showing weight loss in those who follow the keto diet. In research, it’s extremely difficult to do any long term, diet-controlled studies due to lack of compliance. Irrespective of the diet, you can imagine controlling subjects for several years is a difficult task for any researcher to do. That being said, there are several long-term studies showing a positive benefit for the ketogenic diet. One study found that 66 obese individuals with high cholesterol were able to lower their weight and cholesterol levels with a ketogenic diet over 56 weeks.  A meta analysis (which is an analysis of several published papers) found that “Individuals assigned to a ketogenic diet achieve a greater weight loss than those assigned to a low fat diet in the long term; hence, a ketogenic diet may be an alternative tool against obesity. ”  All of the studies analyzed were greater than 12 months in duration. Lastly, even reducing your carbohydrate intake to less than 20% has shown to have sustainable weight loss even 44 months later! For individuals starting a keto diet in the 1990’s, adherence to the diet was likely a lot harder as options were a bit more limited. Today, you can “ketofy” nearly anything from pizza to desserts so it’s much more sustainable and the research shows the weight loss is maintained.
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 Ease of Following: 1. 4/5 StarsThe keto diet got a low ranking in this category as experts alluded to the misconception that your grocery list will be limited on the keto diet. One expert commented, “People become very bored just eating fatty foods, fat, and meat. ”Counter: The keto diet employs a variety of whole foods, and the best part is most are naturally occurring since cutting out most carbohydrates means leaving processed foods on the shelves where they belong. While opponents repeat the talking point of being limited to red meat and bacon, the keto diet encompasses a wide variety of foods. The staples of the keto foods list include lettuces, leafy greens, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, berries, avocado, bell pepper, olives, fish, shellfish, poultry, beef, wild game, cheese, plain yogurt, butter, ghee, nuts, seeds, nut and seed butters, and healthy oils such olive, walnut, coconut, and avocado. Oh and when you do want to switch it up you can make keto waffles, keto pancakes, or even keto cookies. Lastly, scientific research shows that 80+% of subjects in a study were able to adhere to the diet over a six month period which is quite high in research. Safety: 2/5 StarsThe keto diet was rated poorly in the category of safety, due to the high fat content. One panelist stated the diet could be dangerous for some while another cautioned those with heart disease, kidney disease, and severe diabetes against adoption of the diet. Counter: It’s interesting to note that a group of experts who rightfully admitted that a ketogenic diet can help with weight loss also ranked it low on safety.
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 GLUT 4 transporters are located on skeletal muscle, adipose tissue
, and the heart and do require insulin. In order for glucose to be transported into these cells, insulin must bind to insulin receptors and signal for this process to occur. Insulin is produced by beta cells in the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels. Once it is released, it binds to insulin receptors and triggers a response to allow glucose to be transported into the cell. GLUT 1 Insulin independentBloodBlood-brain-barrierHeart (partially) GLUT 2Insulin-independentLiverPancreasSmall IntestineGLUT 3Insulin-independentBrain NeuronsSpermGLUT 4Insulin-dependentSkeletal MuscleAdipose tissue (fat)HeartDysfunctions in Glucose RegulationGlucose regulation can become dysfunctional at many different steps. If insulin is not produced sufficiently, glucose is unable to enter insulin-dependent cells and these cells can starve. This is known as type
mellitus. If insulin is produced sufficiently, but receptors are damaged or are insulin resistant, they can not signal to allow glucose transport, and again cells become starved for energy. This is known as type 2 diabetes. What is Gestational Diabetes?Gestational diabetes is dysfunction in blood glucose regulation specifically in pregnant women. Women who have gestational diabetes do not have to have a history of diabetes; however, it does put them at higher
risk for developing diabetes later in life.