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Refined grains and foods like white rice and white flour have been stripped of most of their nutrients and contain mostly sugar rather than starch or fiber, leading to a high blood sugar spike that would kick you out of ketosis. These simple carbs are absorbed into the bloodstream almost immediately. Complex CarbsComplex carbs (polysaccharides or oligosaccharides) have three or more sugar molecules. Compared to simple carbs, complex carbs are more slowly absorbed into your bloodstream. Examples of complex carbs include:PotatoesCornParsnips and starchier veggiesLegumes and beans like chickpeas and kidney beansWhole grains like bread, breakfast cereal, rice, and quinoaWhat About Low-Carb Grains?Some keto professionals and advocates believe grains, in general, aren’t suitable for a ketogenic diet. In contrast, others say it depends on the grain, how often you eat it, and the person. People who are more fat-adapted may be able to remain in ketosis while consuming some grains. Fat adaptation means your body is metabolically equipped to handle digesting fat instead of carbs and smoothly switching between the two fuels. You need to assess the net carb count of low-carb grains instead of the total grams of carbs to determine whether you should include low-carb grains in your diet. In smaller amounts, you might be able to have some lower-carb grains and stay in ketosis. Since fiber doesn’t affect your blood sugar levels, you want to go for grains that have some fiber and are lower in carbs.
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You need to assess the net carb count of low-carb grains instead of the total grams of carbs to determine whether you should include low-carb grains in your diet. In smaller amounts, you might be able to have some lower-carb grains and stay in ketosis. Since fiber doesn’t affect your blood sugar levels, you want to go for grains that have some fiber and are lower in carbs. For example:BulgurBulgur is a cereal grain typically derived from cracked wheat berries and used in dishes like tabbouleh and porridge. 1 cup (182 grams) of cooked bulgur has 25. 5 grams of net carbs, making it one of the lowest carb whole grains around. MilletMillet is an ancient grain, and 1 cup (174 grams) of cooked millet provides 39 grams of net carbs and over 2 grams of fiber. QuinoaQuinoa is a pseudo-grain often prepared and served as a grain. 1 cup (185 grams) of cooked quinoa provides 34 grams of net carbs, so it may not be suitable for many keto dieters.  CouscousCouscous is a processed grain product and a Moroccan staple dish. 1 cup (157 grams) of cooked couscous provides around 34.
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4 transporters are located on skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the heart and do require insulin. In order for glucose to be transported into these cells
, insulin must bind to insulin receptors and signal for this process to occur. Insulin is produced by beta cells in the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels. Once it is released, it binds
to insulin receptors and triggers a response to allow glucose to be transported into the cell. GLUT 1 Insulin independentBloodBlood-brain-barrierHeart (partially) GLUT 2Insulin-independentLiverPancreasSmall IntestineGLUT 3Insulin-independentBrain NeuronsSpermGLUT 4Insulin-dependentSkeletal MuscleAdipose tissue (fat)HeartDysfunctions in Glucose RegulationGlucose regulation can become dysfunctional at many different steps. If insulin is not produced sufficiently, glucose is unable to enter insulin-dependent cells and these cells can starve. This is known as type 1 diabetes mellitus. If insulin is produced sufficiently, but receptors are damaged or are insulin resistant, they can not signal to allow glucose transport, and again cells become starved for energy. This is known as type 2 diabetes. What is Gestational Diabetes?Gestational diabetes is dysfunction in blood glucose regulation specifically in pregnant women. Women who have gestational diabetes do not have to have a history of diabetes; however, it does put them at higher risk for developing diabetes later in life.