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What is Diabetes?When you think of diabetes
, you probably think of insulin injections or eating too much sugar, but it’s much more complicated than that
. There are many different types of diabetes including type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes as a whole describes abnormal blood glucose regulation and hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels)gestational diabetesHow Are Blood Glucose Levels Regulated?Glucose is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) that all carbohydrates are eventually broken down
into. For example, lactose in the milk you drink
is a disaccharide made of glucose and galactose (monosaccharide). Lactose is broken down into these two sugars and then galactose is further broken down into glucose (or glycogen).  Once carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, they are in the blood (extracellular–outside of the cells); however, cells need that glucose in order to carry out certain processes so it has to be brought inside (intracellular). Through the process of glycolysis, glucose is broken down to produce ATP. ATP is the currency system of the cell (like dollar bills). It fuels the work that cells need to do. While glucose is a simple sugar, it is still a relatively large molecule, therefore it needs certain transporters in order to allow it to enter a cell. These are known as GLUTs (glucose transporters).