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 GLUT 4 transporters are located on skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the heart and do require insulin. In order for glucose to be transported into these cells, insulin must bind to insulin receptors and signal for this process to occur. Insulin is produced by beta cells in the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels. Once it is released, it binds to insulin receptors and triggers a response to allow glucose to be transported into the cell. GLUT 1 Insulin independentBloodBlood-brain-barrierHeart (partially) GLUT 2Insulin-independentLiverPancreasSmall IntestineGLUT 3Insulin-independentBrain NeuronsSpermGLUT 4Insulin-dependentSkeletal MuscleAdipose tissue (fat)HeartDysfunctions in Glucose RegulationGlucose regulation can become dysfunctional at many different steps. If insulin is not produced sufficiently, glucose is unable to enter insulin-dependent cells and these cells can starve. This is known as type 1 diabetes mellitus. If insulin is produced sufficiently, but receptors are damaged or are insulin resistant, they can not signal to allow glucose transport, and again cells become starved for energy. This is known as type 2 diabetes. What is Gestational Diabetes?Gestational diabetes is dysfunction in blood glucose regulation specifically in pregnant women. Women who have gestational diabetes do not have to have a history of diabetes; however, it does put them at higher risk for developing diabetes later in life.
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This includes increased thirst (polydipsia) and increased urination (polyuria). Most women do not know that they have gestational diabetes until diagnosed after an oral glucose tolerance test. An oral glucose tolerance test is performed in order to determine how well your body responds to high levels of glucose consumption over a two-hour period. How Is Gestational Diabetes Treated?For some, gestational diabetes can go away on its own and have no complications for the baby. However, for some, if left untreated, gestational diabetes can lead to premature birth and other health complications. Luckily, gestational diabetes is easily treatable with changes in diet and activity level. The key focus is to improve blood glucose levels by limiting the consumption of high-carbohydrate foods. Keto and Gestational Diabetes: Can a Ketogenic Diet Help?One key way to improve blood glucose regulation is to reduce carbohydrates consumed. By reducing carbohydrates consumed, insulin sensitivity is improved, and blood glucose regulation is improved. One clinical study found that reducing carbohydrate consumption may improve blood glucose regulation, without increasing the risk of ketonemia (abnormal blood ketone levels).  Research has shown that the ketogenic diet can be tremendously helpful in improving type 2 diabetes, as well as improving insulin sensitivity.
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Through the process of glycolysis, glucose
is broken down to produce ATP. ATP is the currency system of the cell (like dollar bills). It fuels the work that cells need to do. While glucose is a simple sugar, it is still a relatively
large molecule, therefore
it needs certain transporters in order to allow it to enter a cell. These are known as GLUTs (glucose transporters).  Contrary to popular belief, not all cells require insulin in order to transport glucose inside of a cell. Some organs and tissues are insulin-independent, meaning insulin is not required, whereas others are insulin-dependent, meaning they require insulin.  GLUT 4 transporters are located
on skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the heart and do require insulin. In order for glucose to be transported into these cells, insulin must bind to insulin receptors and signal for this process to occur. Insulin is produced by beta cells in the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels. Once it is released, it binds to insulin receptors and triggers a response to allow glucose to be transported into the cell.