macromolecules of ketosis
In order for glucose to be transported into these cells, insulin must bind to insulin receptors and signal for this process to occur. Insulin is produced by beta cells in the pancreas in response to high blood glucose levels. Once it is released, it binds to insulin receptors and triggers a response to allow glucose to be transported into the cell. GLUT 1 Insulin independentBloodBlood-brain-barrierHeart (partially) GLUT 2Insulin-independentLiverPancreasSmall IntestineGLUT 3Insulin-independentBrain NeuronsSpermGLUT 4Insulin-dependentSkeletal MuscleAdipose tissue (fat)HeartDysfunctions in Glucose RegulationGlucose regulation can become dysfunctional at many different steps. If insulin is not produced sufficiently, glucose is unable to enter insulin-dependent cells and these cells can starve. This is known as type 1 diabetes mellitus. If insulin is produced sufficiently, but receptors are damaged or are insulin resistant, they can not signal to allow glucose transport, and again cells become starved for energy. This is known as type 2 diabetes. What is Gestational Diabetes?Gestational diabetes is dysfunction in blood glucose regulation specifically in pregnant women. Women who have gestational diabetes do not have to have a history of diabetes; however, it does put them at higher risk for developing diabetes later in life. It is not well known why some women develop gestational diabetes, however, various hormones do play a role including insulin.
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For example:BulgurBulgur is a cereal grain typically derived from cracked wheat berries and used in dishes like tabbouleh and porridge. 1 cup (182 grams) of cooked bulgur has 25. 5 grams of net carbs, making it one of the lowest carb whole grains around. MilletMillet is an ancient grain, and 1 cup (174 grams) of cooked millet provides 39 grams of net carbs and over 2 grams of fiber. QuinoaQuinoa is a pseudo-grain often prepared and served as a grain. 1 cup (185 grams) of cooked quinoa provides 34 grams of net carbs, so it may not be suitable for many keto dieters.  CouscousCouscous is a processed grain product and a Moroccan staple dish. 1 cup (157 grams) of cooked couscous provides around 34. 5 grams of net carbs. PopcornYou might be surprised to think of popcorn as a grain, never mind a lower-carb grain, but a 1 cup (14 grams) serving of popped popcorn actually only has 6. 5 grams of net carbs.
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Let’s discuss the ins and outs of grains on keto!!Simple and Complex CarbsFoods high in fiber have a lower number of net carbs. Net carbs are the carbs your body
actually absorbs. To calculate net carbs, subtract the grams of fiber from the total grams of carbs. (Total grams of carbs – grams of fiber = net carbs)Some grains are lower in carbs and higher in fiber, while others are higher in carbs and should definitely be avoided on keto. Carbohydrates are categorized into simple and complex.  Starch and fiber are complex carbs, and sugar is a simple carb. To simplify: fiber is a type of carb, but you can’t digest it; rather, it feeds the healthy bacteria in your gut. Starch is more like long chains of sugar molecules connected together (envision a sugary pearl necklace), and your body breaks starch down into individual sugar pearls or units. Simple CarbsRefined white flour is simple carbsSimple carbohydrates have one or two sugar molecules. Fructose (the fruit
sugar) or glucose have one sugar molecule, whereas disaccharides like lactose (the milk sugar) and sucrose (table sugar) are made up of two. Simple carbs come from added sugars like white and brown sugar and honey and from naturally occurring sugars found in milk and fruits.